Justice & Judicial Systems
Introduction of the subject:
It is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes and provides justice to the people of state. The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in a country, or an international community. The first legal systems of the world were set up to prevent citizens to settle conflicts with violence. In common law jurisdictions, courts interpret law; this includes constitutions, statutes, and regulations. They also make law (but in a limited sense, limited to the facts of particular cases) based upon prior case law in areas where the legislature has not made law. The judiciary mainly interprets and applies the law, but can create law in some systems.
Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make law (that is, in a plenary fashion, which is the responsibility of the legislature) or enforce law (which is the responsibility of the executive), but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. This is usually consists of a court of final appeal (called the “Supreme court” or “Constitutional court”), together with lower courts.